[PSYC 200] 16. Memory

[upbeat music] >> I wanna talk about memory today, if you remember we’ve started, we looked at the chapter on learning. The next test is coming up very quickly and it’s going to be over the topics of learning, classical and operand conditioning, and it’s going to be over memory and it’s going to be over emotions. I’m going to cover memory today and emotions on Monday and then it happens fast so be prepared. Let me start this way. I just barely introduced the topic of memory but are there any questions about anything related to the class topic before I get started? Here are some key questions in the field of memory. What would it be like to have a perfect memory? Do you remember the video tape we showed a week ago of the woman that has this perfect memory? That would be weird. Let me start with this question, ready? Does God have a perfect memory? How many say that God has a perfect memory? Let me see your hands.

How many would God doesn’t have a perfect memory or doesn’t remember anything, or all things? Anybody wanna make the case that there are things that God doesn’t remember? [student mumbles off microphone] Wait, they got what? >> Woman: He doesn’t know everything but he forgives us and forgets to fully forgive us. So, in order for God to fully forgive us, there has to be something that He doesn’t remember? Or that maybe He forgets? Does God forget anything? >> Man: I think He doesn’t have to forget in order to forgive. >> He doesn’t have to forget in order to forgive. [man mumbles off microphone] Seems like for humans, we have the same possibility. We can forgive without forgetting. >> Man: God is. >> God is. >> Man: So in a sense he doesn’t need to remember because he is. >> God is, he doesn’t need to remember, part of his being as– >> Man: He ams. >> He ams. >> Man: Because memory requires a timeframe. >> And memory requires a timeframe, God is not necessarily bound by this particular timeframe, he is, he ams.

>> Woman: If he knows what’s going to happen and what will be, how could he not have– >> And if he knows what happens and what’s going to be then how could he not? I’m going to say I think he truly does, I think, and I think the evidence is clear biblically, that the answer to this question does God have a perfect memory, is he is, he is God, he is outside of time he is who he is, but God does not remember everything, what would something he doesn’t remember? Does God choose to forget anything? Come on does he? It seems to me that if you were to yesterday have a relationship with Jesus, and you said this, you said to God yesterday God I messed up, I have sinned, and I ask your forgiveness for this sin, and that if you did that yesterday and today you were to say to him, God you remember that sin yesterday? What would he say if you could hear his voice? I think he would say I don’t know what you’re talking about.

Am I wrong? Is that possible? Is there any evidence for the fact that you were to confess a sin and give it to him fully and completely, that the very next day let’s just for fun, the next day he says God remember that sin, I think he says no I don’t remember that sin, why would I say that? >> But sounds like he literally forgives or he remembers he’s choosing it. >> She is saying does he literally forget or does he choose not to remember, I guess it’s maybe both, I don’t know what do you think? >> Woman: I think he chooses not to remember. >> Chooses not to remember, what does Micah say? He will cast all of their sins into the depths of the sea, some translations say he dumps your sins into the sea of forgetfulness, that’s an amazing verse, your sins go into the depths of the sea, it literally means your sins are put into a place where he doesn’t remember them, I think you need to think about this for just a second, I may be wrong, but I’d like us to at least think about what the sea of forgetfulness really mean? By the way Corrie Tenbaum, anyone read her, Corrie Tenbaum, grew up somewhere in Europe, I don’t remember in Europe in particular, but lived a good part of her life in the concentration camps, she wrote some amazing books, one of the key things I love she talks about Micah 7:19, anybody know what she says, when you take your sins and ask God for forgiveness of your sins, he throws it into the sea of forgetfulness, and then does what? Anybody know what she says God does next? Puts up a sign, anybody know what the sign says? I’ll tell you in a moment.

Sheena. Isaiah and I will not remember your sins. It’s a very powerful idea then, for you have cast all of my sins behind your back, that’s another kind of way of saying these sins are behind me, they are gone, now it probably isn’t literally forget, it probably is I have chosen. >> Woman: My pasture he says we should fear God for when we die, he supposed to tell us our sins or something. >> Is there an accounting of the things we have done in life she says right at death? By the way the sign that Corrie Tenbaum puts up is a sign that says no fishing, God takes your sin puts them in the sea of forgetfulness, and puts up a sign that says you can’t go fishing again for this sin, it’s in the sea of forgetfulness, the blood of Christ covers these things, it’s just a thought, I don’t have the answer.

>> Man: Is that may be our forgetfulness? That He can have the privilege of being able to forget? >> His question is os this maybe referring to our forgetfulness, I think the answer is when he casts them into the sea, it could very well be, we have to maybe go look at that and see what the author intended. Yes? >> Man: But if you cast those sins into the sea of forgetfulness, he knows what went into that sea, so therefore he knows what the sea contains. >> I think these are all, yeah could be, my own personal kind of way I’ve done this, is I think that I’ve, if we confess our sins, he forgive us our sins, and purifies us from all righteousness, and I think they go here and they are dealt with, they’re done, the blood of Christ covers this completely, that’s my belief, but it’s an interesting thought. Now we are dealing in the psychology of memory with something very different, and that is human memory, is this possible for us, and to show you, I really want to spend some time today looking at what human memories are like, what has changed in the field of psychology over the last 20 years when it comes to memory, and then what are the things related to memory that have huge impacts for us, and what can we take away, so we’ll look at what it would be like not to remember anything beyond two minutes, did I just hit play? There is a video clip I want to show you of a person who does not remember anything beyond two minutes, what happened was he had something called viral encephalitis, it caused him a great headache for a couple of days, came out and his memory now is only about a little less than two minutes long, and in this what you’ll find is a very tortured difficult individual.

That is he will have a conversation with you like this, and as he’s talking with you he will forget what you were talking about or what has just gone on, and he’ll say I have just woken up right now, and this is him right here. >> You don’t mind sitting down. >> No. >> We’ve been here for 10 minutes at least. >> As I started working out, and I realized I’d been sitting I was confused. >> And do you feel absolutely normal? >> Not absolutely normal, no, totally confused? >> Confused? >> Yes.

>> I had kids and everything, I’m out of touch with them, it was my fault. >> Man: Keep it low because it gets louder here. [choral singing] >> Narrator: Clive is an outstanding musician. He would take his wife Susie at the same time, he loved music so much. >> {Narrator] Clive was a magician of enormous integrity. >> Narrator: he was the world’s expert on Mahler, one of the three or four great composers of the Renaissance. >> {Narrator] And also he worked as chorus master of the Lewisham Polytechnic, which is Europe’s foremost school.

>> Narrator: Willie was singing or applying or conducting. >> Man: And eventually I can do it, but I mean I know– >> Narrator: Through a cruel twist of fortune shows us how fundamental consciousness and memory are to our lives. [laughing] >> Smashing. >> So how are you feeling this morning? Have you not been here before? >> No this is the first time. >> No I’m conscious for the first time. It’s the first time I’ve seen anybody. >> Have you been here before? >> I haven’t seen you before.

>> You haven’t? >> I’ve not seen anything at all before I’m completely blind all the time, this is the first coffee I’ve had. >> That’s the first coffee you’ve had? >> Yes. >> Cheers. >> And how are your fingers? >> Is the first time. >> Well how often? >> I’ve never seen anything, not black and white, nothing. >> Do you remember who I am? >> No. I don’t remember anything at all, I don’t remember writing to you at all, nothing to do with me consciously, unconscious writing. >> What are you doing here? >> Man: It will be easy for me to make a change, stick around, just about three more minutes. >> Clive had a terrible headache, the headache didn’t lift, it didn’t respond to analgesics, but the fourth day he developed quite a high fever, and on the evening of the first day for a little while he forgot his daughter’s name, by the fifth day he was unconscious.

>> Clive suffered from viral and catalyzes which is led to the damage of the right on the left temple lobes, plus a good portion of the left frontal lobe, the temporal lobes containing a structure called the hippocampus which we know is implicated in a memory function, and Clive has almost certainly been completely destroyed by the size of his brain. This is primarily responsible for his severe learning impairment, in addition the damage to his frontal lobes also causes a number of additional memory problems, which manifest mostly in terms of him repeating himself a lot, and generally showing highly emotional behavior. >> Clive’s world now consists of a moment, with no past to anchor it and no future to look ahead to, it is a blinkered moment, he sees what is right in front of him, but as soon as that information hits his brain it fails, nothing leaves an impression, nothing registers, everything goes in perfectly well because he has all his faculties, his intellect is virtually intact and he perceives his world as you or I do, but as soon as he’s perceived it and looked away it’s gone for him, so it’s a moment to moment consciousness, as it were, a time vacuum, and everything before that moment is completely void, and he feels as though he’s awakening afresh the whole time.

[jolly singing] >> You’re the first person I’ve seen. [indistinct mumbling] >> I’m giving you the impression of being awake but it’s not true. >> He always thinks he’s been awake for about two minutes, and that’s why he looks at his watch all the time to record it, to record the fact, I’ve woken up now this is an important event therefore I will write it down in my diary, so he writes at AM I am now completely awake for the first time, and that was his first time.

Patience begins because he’s always playing patience. On the whole diary every page is a succession of entries saying almost the same thing, a first awakeness, and then he goes back and looks at his own entries, he doesn’t acknowledge they are all genuine, he says he noted his handwriting, but as far as he’s concerned he’s unconscious when he wrote them, so quite often he left four out that he’s written before, and so his life is an ever repeating moment of first awakening. The strongest thing in his life I believe is his diaries bear that out is his life for me and that’s absolutely real, and each time I walk into that room it is as if it’s the first time he’d seen me for years. >> Dear heavens hello. Well done. So how are you feeling? It’s the first time I’ve seen anything at all. You’re the first person I’ve seen. >> You’ve not seen me before? >> No. >> You can’t remember. I’m conscious for the first time. It’s the first time I’ve seen anything. >> You’ve not been conscious before? >> Have you been here before? >> I haven’t seen you before.

>> You haven’t? >> No I have not seen anything at all I’ve been completely blind all the time. >> You don’t remember your life at all? >> No I don’t remember nothing about at all. None of it at all. >> But you remember who I am? >> Of course I do. >> Do you kiss all the women like that? >> You know I love you, I don’t kid you.

>> Yes I do know, you have written it all over your diary. I bet you if I looked to see what you’ve written, you didn’t mention me on that page. You’ve mentioned me on this page. My first thought I will be with Deborah for eternity. Please enter in the diary rubbish, what does that mean? Did you write that. >> I’m no conscience memory of it all all, no, I change my mind for the first time. >> Is it your handwriting. >> It is, but I know nothing about it at all. >> So how did it get there? >> I don’t know, I absolutely don’t know. >> But you must have written it. >> No I haven’t. Don’t say it to me please don’t say, when I say no I mean exactly that. I haven’t seen the book at all till now. That to me means I haven’t seen it I have no knowledge of it at all, that’s all, there is no knowledge of that book it’s entirely new to me.

>> But I’m only saying– I never said it, I’ve never seen it before. >> But who would put that? >> I don’t know, for heaven’s sake use your intelligence for heaven’s sake, get rid of the bloody thing. Use your intelligence. >> Clive Betts is extraordinarily angry, and who wouldn’t? Because here you’re not dealing with somebody who is demented, who is oblivious who is gaga, you are dealing with a perfectly lucid highly intelligent man who is being locked of knowledge in his own mind and he feels deeply humiliated to be put in that position.

Very very frustrated, he can’t grasp what’s wrong with him, because as telling him he’s forgetting the previous sentence. >> Clive has lost a form of memory which probably distinguishes human beings From all other animals, he’s lost the highest form of memory, the form of memory that enables you to relate yourself to the past and project yourself into the future, so in a sense he feels like a man adrift. >> As far as I’m concerned I haven’t heard a note of music, seen any music, had any contact with music.

>> He’s still a fan of conducting– >> He is able to play music, and I’m gonna stop it here, but he can go through and sit at the piano and probably go for five or six minutes, which is interesting, it one of these quirks, I have a video of him 10 years later after this, and nothing has changed, same thing, he has to be watched all the time, if he’s not watched he can go someplace and then wake up going I don’t know where I am, he just keeps waking up, so what this illustrates is something very powerful right, our memory does something for us, it connects us to our past but it also provides us the moment that is present, we don’t think about this until there are weird things like this. Yeah question? >> Woman: How does he know his wife? >> He knows his wife because this accident preserved his long-term memory of things and his children, so he knows things that occurred when he was young, until that moment in time when he was however old he was, from that point forward he doesn’t have new memories, but it’s from that point forward, in fact if you give him a mirror, he would look at the mirror and he would go what happened? I got older, he wouldn’t even know how old he was, he would go I don’t know I’d have to guess.

>> How can he stay angry? >> By the way the emotional side is, you can imagine what it would be like all the time, this weird thing you don’t know what’s happening, but there was probably some other brain damage that went on as well that influenced probably some emotional states of his, but they are not sure exactly, some of the other damage that could have occurred, but you can just imagine in general how frustrating that would be all of the time to have that, so they’re trying to explain it, that might be both a combination of what happened to him and some other things that might have happened with his brain. >> Woman: Is it a two minute cycle or is it– >> It’s more loose than that, it’s not like this exact cycle, but it’s more just the length of our short-term memory, and how long it lasts, who’s processing it, and then as soon as that’s done, it could be as short as a minute and a half or a couple of minutes long.

>> Woman: How does he sleep? >> Good question, he states normal and everything else, I don’t know I mean his body has regulations just like we would and gets tired, by the way here’s another tough question, can you forget or repress a traumatic event that happened during your childhood, this is a very difficult question for in psychology has put us in this position, is it warm in here? >> Woman: Yes.

>> I don’t know how to fix it either, I just wanted to know because it’s warm for me, can you have some event that occurs during childhood that you have forgotten completely everything about? Have you ever heard of this happening? Is it possible that there is some of that, and by the way this has come to the front of the field of psychology and the topic of memory, because the question has been is that really likely? Some event, could it be that bad that you forgotten it? Well the answer is it’s somewhat complicated, it is possible that those kinds of things occur, but it’s more likely that those events that are recalled later on, and I’ll give you an example of this that were supposedly forgotten may not be completely accurate, there may be some things that have occurred.

Here’s some new trends in the field of memory, By new I mean over the last decade or so, there’s been a shift certainly over the last 20 years there’s been this shift from when I was a graduate student in the field of memory they were still looking, and there’s still some that do this, looking at how much information we can store, the amount of information does memory, or short-term memory hold, or how often times do we retain over time is now a question about the pliability of memory, so we have made this kind of shift from storage and amount of information retained, to how pliable, plastic is memory, can you remember something, how many think you could remember something as a memory but it never really happened to you, does anybody have a memory that something you think happened but it never really happened, and how do you really know, how do you know that something didn’t happen to you? >> Man: Well I have a memory of being really young and visiting my cousin’s house, and two odd things happened, first is that halfway through it seems to have gotten melded together into some animal kingdom commercial.

>> So his early memory he says of family, but also it turns into an animal kingdom commercial so you know that you weren’t in it. >> Man: And the second thing is that everything in it, the entire house is split, I went to visit that same cousin’s house years later, I was like everything is on the opposite side, the fireplace was here, now it’s here, the stairs over there. >> Is it possible that sometimes we have memories of things, or do you have memories of you found just a picture, it really happened that your sister or your brother, you thought it happened to you. The pliability of memory is fascinating, it means we are now asking questions how accurate do we believe that your memories are, we believe now there’s lots of evidence showing that memories are fairly quirky and fallible, yeah, go ahead question? >> Woman: Is it considered forgetting. [mumbles of microphone] >> Does it happen frequently or often? [student mumbles off microphone] Her question is this, if you don’t remember something but then you see somebody and they remind you hey 10 years ago this event, and then you recall it and remember it, we wouldn’t call that forgetting, what we call it is just recall, it’s a form of memory, you wouldn’t recall that on your own, but there was some prompt but you never had before which is a friend or a conversation so that it came up there, by the way when we say memory is fallible quirky and reconstructive, you don’t have to write this quote down, but it’s the idea that when we start looking at memory it’s almost like not a videotape recording of your life, but more like theater, you set your memories kind of like a theater would rather than a digital recording, and that is when you do it, and as a theater you can show the same play on this stage, and the same play 20 miles away on a different, and it will come across differently because of the actors, and because of the production that’s going on, and you can choose to emphasize some things in a theater production that you wouldn’t before, it’s not like showing the same video clip somewhere else, and memories are more like that.

What that means is, some of our memories are more like, in this case the theater or a theater of the past, that some of it we’ve made up, some of it we’ve added elements to it, some of it we’ve kind of created parts of this, and this is where they’ve taken a college student, and you know how long it took to set into most college students, anyone take a guess how long it would take for me to put a memory into your mind of some event that never happened in your life and you’ll recall it as a memory? It would not take very long at all, researchers found, some researchers, one not far from here, at the University UC Irvine, a researcher took college students asked them to complete this, they said tell me, about memories, but before we do, we want to know if we can contact your parents, and have them supply to us four or five memories of things that happened or events that happened in your life that you’re likely to remember, so the students said sure, so they contacted the student’s parents, the parents give them four events that this kid will probably remember, oh he’ll remember when he was six he was riding his bike and got hit by a car, he was riding his bike and he fell and it was really bad, and he survived and everything, but he’ll remember that we talked about, He’ll remember this and this and this, and then they say now do we have your permission to tell this college student did he ever get lost in the mall? And he wandered away from you, and they said no that never happened, they said but we are going to tell your student that one of those memories is that he got lost in the mall and we want to see what happens, They said great, so here’s what happened, they brought the college student in, and here’s what they did, they said your parents give us these five memories, you got hit by a bike one time do you remember that? They go oh yeah I got hit, it was bad, I lost my teeth, I fell down on the sidewalk and my teeth broke, I remember that memory, I remember the one-time we moved, I was six and they go like this, I was lost in all, I don’t remember that? Really lost in a shopping mall, I don’t think I remember that, and this fifth one, oh yeah I remember that, and then they said think about these memories, see if anything comes back to you and come back next week, they come back next week and they say do you have any more memories? Yeah I kind of remember a little bit more now I was prompted about this bicycle accident, I kind of start to remember some details, I remember a guy found me and I kind of remember now, he was wearing a plaid shirt and he saw me and he grabbed me and my mom said don’t ever grow away with that again, and now these people are beginning, the students are beginning to remember a situation, an event that never happened to them, that’s weird.

Is it that easy? Well because it’s that easy, researchers are now questioning how pliable truly is our memory, would you believe somebody who didn’t have a memory for years and years and years, and now ready they recall something that didn’t happen that they didn’t remember for 15 years, suppose you had to decide how accurate this person was, when they recalled now something that they hadn’t thought about, and there are going I didn’t remember this but now I remember the details, well all of these things make for good interesting stories, and I’m gonna give you an example of this, think about anybody have any memory, or any memories of movies that use memory as a theme, like they’ve lost their memory. >> Woman: 50 First Dates. >> 50 First Dates. Okay I’ll tell you what, what was that one? >> Woman: Juice Bigelow.

>> Juice Bigelow, Memento, how many remember that one, Memento? Give me another one? Bourne Identity, Finding Nemo. Internal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Eternal. You guys remember this one? Watch is that accurate, we’ll talk a little bit about amnesia, here’s some other movies maybe, you don’t have to write these down, you might find some on here that you haven’t thought about. Some of these movies have small pieces about memory, some larger pieces, as you look at this here’s the theme you don’t have necessarily have to write this down, but it comes down to this, memories do have this amazing way of helping us know about ourselves, defining us and connecting us to our past, so as we explore these things and you look at some of these, there are others that are out there, it’s a very common thing, let me start with this, this woman right here is in a court room testifying, the reason she’s testifying in a court room because she was sitting there and her daughter was six years old, and her daughter looked up at her like this, the daughter was playing and the daughter looked up, four or five whatever she was, looked up and this woman went like this, she went and the thought came back to her about that look sparked a memory of the exact look of a friend when she was six years old herself, looked just like that right before she was murdered.

She went that look, I remember my friend, we were six, seven, eight, whatever, and that’s what she looked like right before she was murdered, that means I was there, and she started to recall, and sure enough she had known that this friend of hers and the neighborhood was murdered, she had known that, but then at this moment she said I was there, Because that’s the look right before she was killed, that means I was there, that means I must know who it is, and they had never solved this murder, and so she went and talked to her husband, and she went and talked to friends, about I just remembered something, I was there and they have never solved this murder, but I had to have been there, and they started to help her piece back her memory, and her husband said you’ve got to go talk to somebody else because I can’t help you, maybe they can help you recall your memory, so she went to somebody, and they begin to fill in the pieces, and now she’s at court because she remembered a lot more about who killed her little friend.

This his/her friend, and her little friend she now remembered this, she remembered and she’s describing this memory of the guy who killed her holding a rock above his head about to smash her friends face, and she said that was the look, and this is what he was doing, and the person she remembered was doing that was her father. So now it’s her father that she goes went I know who it was now it was my dad that did this, and so the father right there was arrested based upon a 20 year old memory that she had forgotten all about, reconstructed over a period of a couple of months, and now she goes it was him.

They put him on trial he was convicted of murder, and sent to prison for the murder, they didn’t have any evidence that Linked him other than her memory, they lived in the same neighborhood, they interviewed all these different people, he was not convicted on the basis of a 20 year old memory of a little girl who was eight and now recalled that at 28.

>> Man: Sod does that seem like repressed memories? >> The question is how could she forgotten that for 20 years, do you think it was accurate? Psychologists were brought in, obviously because these kinds of things if they are occurring is this, I just told you that one of the new trends in the fields is the pliability of memory, the researcher who I told you was able to implant a memory in a college student was asked to come to this trial, and said I will go do experiments and I’ll show you how easy it is to really implant a memory in somebody, and on the basis of her experiments that found I could make a college student believe that he was lost in a mall, how do you think how easy it is this person could be led to believe that it was her father? And based upon that, he appealed this and by the way the whole time he’s going I didn’t murder anybody, this is crazy, he appealed by the way and was released out of prison, because it was now questioned is somebody able to really forget something that long and is that memory true, or based upon what this researcher has found, and by the way this particular researcher her name is Elizabeth Loftus, based on some of these findings, should we really trust this person’s memory? It’s too easy to implant things, the therapist could have easily have said do you remember this, what was it like, what were you feeling, can you think of any faces can you think of any pictures, think about some men in your life that might do this, that it is possible that they inadvertently made her think about her father during this time, by the way he sued, he was set free because repressed memory evidence was invalidated, after all this research they went gosh we don’t think we can trust a 20 year old memory especially what was happening to her as people were talking to her and trying to help sort out these memories, and they threw it out, it was invalidated, by the way when he got out he sued his daughter and the people for false imprisonment, saying I never did this and you convicted the wrong guy and I’m gonna sue everybody, and that the latest by the way was a suit and repressed memory that occurred just about a couple of years ago now, it has been thrown out, and he’s out free now, and there’s no evidence at all linking him to this murder, but the murder is still unsolved.

The question has now come up to psychology, how good are memories of things like this, is it possible for us to take this, by way this was the researcher Elizabeth Loftus, I just described some of the research she has done to show I’m not sure we should trust this, I’m not sure given what she experienced that that’s trustworthy, because it’s too easy to implant things, and you don’t have to write this down up here, this is just simply the idea that suggestions she says can make people believe they had an experience that they almost certainly did not, and I describe that for you, were there questions? Okay, any questions on that, by the way the person who saw in the video previously name was Clive Wareing, and I was gonna show you a little video of him today, but just trust me he just looks a little bit older, his wife’s looks a little older, same issues, it will not go away there is permanent damage to his brain in this regard, he still lives this way, but there are other fascinating memories, I want to just talk about your book mentions a Russian memoirist named Cheraskefsky, they just write his name as the Russian memoirist, he was a journalist who could remember just like the video of the woman who never forgot, he never forgot any conversation he ever had, so he would go out as a journalist and interview people, he wouldn’t take any pen or paper, because he would just remember everything, in fact that’s what got him in trouble, someone said hey he goes out and does these interviews, he never write anything down, he says how could you do that, he goes well I don’t ever forget any conversation, so because of that he was studied by a group of psychologists over there, he had some amazing abilities, not only could he remember every conversation he ever had, he could remember and memorize things like poetry in foreign language, but he could do it backwards as well, your memory for numbers is like this, if I started listing off numbers right now, how many numbers, if I just started listing them, ready numbers between let’s say one and 20, one, 11, 12, six, three, eight, 15, 16, 18, 16, if I kept going, I said stop recall the numbers in order, how memory could a normal person remember? You’re going to remember probably in the neighborhood of seven, plus or minus two, some of you might get five some of you might get nine, but the average person is going to recall between five and nine, usually what’s called the magic number seven plus or minus two.

Cheraskefsky could remember hundreds of these digits, and then he could do this, by the way here’s a hundred digits just to show you, a string of a hundred digits looks like this, you would give him these numbers and he would go, you would just say ready 13, 11, two, nine, 18, six, this is a hundred right here, you get done and you go like this, do you want it forward or backward? And there is only one time he would forget a number usually, or not remember it, is if you were right here, five, eight, and at this point if you are reading this and in the room somebody coughed, right when you were doing five eight, he would get to this point, he would get six, five and eight, and he’d go I can’t see the number because somebody coughed and there’s a puff of smoke over the number, I can’t see the number, and then he go on and say one, 12, 20.

That cough impressed itself on his memory as a puff of smoke which covered up his memory of that number. By the way that’s called weird. No that’s called synesthesia, synesthesia is this thing where I say numbers to you, six, nine, 13, five, eight, or coughs and it impresses itself on a synesthesias memory as visual images even though it was coming in the auditory channel. Does anybody have that experience, you see colors at music? Some people in here can see things that they hear, what anyway costs he had a hard time forgetting, and so he ended up unfortunately living out his life in an asylum, your book does talk about the Russian memoirist, it’s a great story, it does illustrate some oddness about memories when they are categories that are strange, whether it’s not having a memory for more than two minutes like Clive, or recalled memory of something you’ve forgotten, or a perfect quote memory, it usually illustrates struggles, problems, he had a hard time, he would talk to you and say he had a hard time knowing is this going on now or is this something in the past that occurred, he had a hard time separating out what occurred in the past, because he remembered it perfectly, versus what’s going on now, and it was really difficult for him to forget things, if he wanted to forget a conversation he would write it mentally on a board and then erase it, and it helped him a little bit.

Strange. By the way there are memory exams of things like this, the letter pi, the number pi which is a mathematical, you don’t have to write this down, it’s the ratio between the diameter and the circumference of the circle, three point one four, anybody remember some of these digits, anybody remember a lot of them? >> Woman: 3.14159265358979323846264338. >> That’s 20 digits, that’s pretty good. >> Woman: I can do 20. >> She can do 20, what’s the record? By the way if you calculate this out it goes on and on and on and on and on, these numbers don’t have any significant patterns to them, it just keeps going, and so people have chosen to remember the digits of pi is just a test like she did, up to 20 or whatever, but the world record is how many? This guy October 4th, 2006, he started this, you don’t have to write this down either, it’s just interesting, 100,000 decimal places, it’s like a book of the decimal places of pi, and he’s gone through and he’ll just go three point one point five, 100,000, by the way it took him 16 hours to recall the digits, let me just tell you, you don’t have to write all this down, I think it’s just interesting, in July the year before this, he got to 83,431, but he had to stop three hours into it, because has lost his place so we had to start over from the beginning.

Oh that was painful, then he recited the year before that, he got to 54,000 but the facility hosting the event at the close for the night, sorry you have to come back tomorrow, that didn’t make it, so anyway he uses a form, here’s the word I was talking about synesthesia, is there a question, go ahead? [student mumbles off microphone] Yeah it’s a great question and it’s a tough one, that is there are people who use certain memory techniques and devices that help them recall things, and then there are those who seem to more naturally, is that what your question is? That have a more naturally. >> Man: They just do it. >> Yeah just do it, there’s probably not a whole lot different in that some people that cope just naturally do this have probably stumbled on some things that work and help, and some that have learned this, have just figured out there’s a way to set things up in my mind so I don’t forget them, and different techniques, and I think some people just stumbled on it, yeah? >> Man: What’s the difference between this and photographic memory? >> I’ll tell you the difference between this and photographic memory, give me a second and I’ll tell you the difference how’s that? >> Photographic memory is one of these very interesting phenomenon’s that not a lot of people have, but I’ll share what that means, it’s usually a visual nature and that’s why they call it photographic, I’ll talk a little bit about it because everybody in this room, if they have normal vision has a photographic memory.

I’ll tell you what that means in a minute. You don’t have to write this down. And if you already did well awesome, that’s cool your fast writers and should be proud. We store a lot more than many books combined, but what’s most interesting besides this, is there are patterns we use in forming memories that I want to share and talk a little bit about real quick.

Forming a memory, here’s what I’d like you to do, look at the screen but don’t write this thing down, it’s a word, 10 seconds, don’t write it down, 10 seconds, remember don’t write it down. You can write this stuff down, I’ll come back to that slide in a moment. Information processing, it requires this, name real quick, name the seven dwarves, here’s what I want you to do write them down in your notes write down the seven dwarfs, usually from Snow White not from the dwarves in, where is another set of dwarves, Lord of the Rings, not those guys, not Gimli. Hush, to yourself. >> Man: Balin, Dwalin. >> How many find this task, how many are still working? Go fast.

How many believe you got all seven? How come you got all seven, and why do you think, why do you know? >> Man: I’ve seen it so many times I’ve memorized it all. >> You just decided to memorize them so they are there. Seven watched the movie many times, it meant something to you, how many got none? >> Man: Dopey. Dopey. >> You have to be quiet. How many got none? None of you, how many have a few? But how about there’s one or two on the tip of your tongue, your like I know it, it’s close, alright, ready, the difficulty or ease of this task has a lot to do with did you put this information in, information processing says you never really went to the movie and didn’t really care, then it’s going to find it difficult, some of you go to movies, I’m like this I go to a movie and I’ll say to my wife, now who’s that? And she goes that’s Brad Pitt, I know that Brad Pitt what’s his name in the movie? His name is Frank.

>> Oh okay Frank. And then later on I’ll say who is that guy? And she goes Frank. And I go okay thanks. And then later on I go again what this name guys again, what talking about Frank who is that? My wife says Brad, don’t you pay any attention? >> I say yeah but I don’t remember names like that, why? I also do this, we go get a movie, how many of you have all rented a movie, and I’ll say oh let’s get this one, and she will say we just saw that movie, it has Brad Pitt in it, and I’ll say it was his name Frank? And all say I don’t remember that, and so I go let’s get it, and we put it in and I go like this, Oh God I’ve seen this movie.

What is wrong with my memory? How difficult or easy this task was has a lot to do with information-processing in that you have three tasks, what I failed at and often times do in movies is I don’t encode this information, I don’t put it into memory because I have some things don’t care that much, does that make sense? So if I don’t, you have three tasks, you have two encode it, get it into your memory, you have to store it over time but it’s in there and is stored, and then you’ve got to be able to retrieve this information, like going into a computer, doing a search and recalling things out of your computer that’s based upon things that you’ve experienced, and so you have to do retrieval. Now this is not a very unsimilar process for us, there’s a great analogy of putting things into a computer, typing them in, by the way when computers first came out, I was around, when they first came out, I still remember typing a paper, five hours in front of the computer typing a paper, and this is before there was automatic backup, five or six hours into this paper that I was just writing, there was no rough draft, and I’m typing it in and I’m sitting there like this I’m looking up at the window I see a squirrel, on a little wire, and it looked like this, and you know those little posts up there on top, that’s not the real squirrel, it’s just a picture, but you know those little things up there, I saw a squirrel bouncing around and it goes up to one of those things, and I go that’s a cool squirrel, squirrel like that.

And then I went back to work and then typing out this, and I’m not kidding you, 15 seconds later there was a flash of light, and it just went boom, and I went oh, and I looked over and this thing exploded, and it went like that a flash of light, and it exploded and all of a sudden the squirrel caught fire and he started to fly through the air, and you can see him in there, see him? And now it flashed like this, and I went and I looked at my computer and it was completely blank, and I went how long can it on find my file and there’s no file, find the file, and there’s no file, and I realized he killed my file, so I went to my roommate Chris, he goes are you alright, I said ow I’m going to, a squirrel man, I’m gonna kill him, and he said let’s go kill it, and I told him he said let’s go, so I took a stick I went outside and I found him, he was hanging over a fence burning and singed, and his tail it was black all the way up to his teeth, he was dead, I couldn’t even kill him.

And I thought you are stupidest squirrel, why would you bite that thing? And I didn’t even have any pleasure of killing him, seven hours of my life wasted because of you, the only good thing is his stupid genes, his squirrel genes are no longer in the gene pool. What problem was it? The problem was it was an encoding failure, I never got that information into the memory, it never hit save, it’s encoding, those things happen in our lives. Somebody says what’s your name? >> Man: Onga. >> Onga, I’ll remember that one, how are you doing my name is this, and then 30 seconds later I’m like what’s his name? We did this before with Shane. Where Shane, where are you at Shane, are you still over there? Where is he? Shane. Now he’s going to go. Don’t skip Onga, these kinds of thing happens because they are encoding failures, they could be storage failures retrieval failures, this ability to not get information out was Clive Waring’s problem, by the way tip of the tongue is retrieval failure, if you’re going I know the name, this is what we call a retrieval failure, I know something is about to this or that and it kind of sounds like this, it’s just right there, we call it retrieval failure, by the way it easier for you to recall, I ask you to try to recognize the names of the seven dwarfs, that’s a recall task, what I asked you to do was recall the names of the seven dwarfs, how many did not get all seven names? If I listed them up there would you be able to tell me if they were accurate or not? If I listed them in a list of other names would you be able to tell me which the seven are? Because your ability for recognition is pretty high, so here they are, can you find the names? Grouchy, Gabby, Fearful, Sleepy, Smiley, Jumpy.

Did you find it? Here are their names, the correct ones, Grumpy, Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful. By the way these are the order they are almost always recalled in, how many didn’t remember Bashful or Doc, because the other ones sound alike, Sleepy whatever. Recognition is a little bit better than recall, you have to also pay attention to things, we talked about in here that memory of things, if Onga says his name and I don’t pay attention, I could pay attention to other things and miss that name, and so for us to get something in starts with something called attention, we have this ability to selectively pay attention to some things, this is known as filtering and distractions that we can filter out, right now some of you are facing distractions because of noises, things happening in your life and you may not be able to or aren’t paying attention, and because of that you’re paying attention to other things, and therefore the things that will never get stored or encoded into memory because of this filter.

The filters help screen out things that we don’t want to remember, all the conversations that you have heard that are around you, you just want to go I don’t care, you don’t have to write this bottom two boxes down, this is from the chapter previously about controlled processes and automatic processes, we just go about this filter comes into play, if we’re concentrating on something, then noises can be shifted out, have you ever tuned out all the conversations around you look in the cafeteria, but if somebody says your name you hear it, even though all the other things, has that ever happened? That’s this idea of most of this filter works pretty well, but personal items to you, things you’re thinking about, things that are important to you like your name get through that filter, otherwise we sometimes pull them out.

So questions? >> Woman: What about using music to study? >> We’ll talk a little bit, I’ll just say this, she asked a question how about people who need music to study, you remember things better when you’re studying with music is that the idea? It’s probably personal preference of what you’ve done, sometimes by the way this found that you will then do better on the test if you can listen to that exact same music that you were listening to when you studied, it’s like a prompt, they put people under water with breathing tanks, and they had to memorize lists underwater, and then they said now recall the list above water, and then another group recalled that same list that you memorized underwater recall that underwater, and they did better recalling it underwater, does that make sense? A context-dependent effect. Real quickly somebody asked about photographic picture images, this is called iconic memory, iconic, think about the word icon, and we all have a photographic memory, everybody was normal vision has a photographic memory, the only problem is it only lasts about a half of the second, but for about half of the second it shows up literally on your brain as a picture perfect image, that for some people with what we now call photographic memory it just lasts longer than half a second.

That’s called iconic memory, by the way you do this instead of photographic, we call it eidetic imagery, eidetic is just another name for photographic memory, and eidetic would be you can test this pretty easily, anybody know somebody in here photographic or eidetic memory who has it? There’s ways that it occurs that you can do some testing for, I’m just going to skip through this and tell you that it’s, also related there’s a great clip by a guy. >> Derren: One of the techniques that I’ve used to imitate psychic phenomena is photographic memory. I’m not going to show it to you unfortunately, but it’s a great little clip, just put in Derren Brown eidetic or photographic memory and he can take a book and in less than a couple of minutes memorize the entire book, and you can say what’s on page 61, and he’ll say what line you tell them what line and he’ll say it’s this, and that’s a very powerful display, you might want to look at it and see how he does it, by the way there are such things as echoic memory, what does that sound like? It sounds like echo, and the idea is that you have memories of things that you’ve just heard, auditory words like my voice will last for how long in your ear? Can you hear when I stop talking can you still hear my voice, it’s really scary, it lasts about 2 to 3 seconds, that’s the weird thing, somebody says you’re studying away and they say you want to go to a movie, and you say oh yeah, have you ever done that, why do you say what? Because this memory is called echoic memory, it lasts about two to four seconds which allows the processing of the sensation, and so we keep hearing this, these echoes.

So if it’s photographic we call it eidetic, but if it’s just plain normal visual iconic memory, or echoic memory, if it’s auditory in nature, questions? Alright, deja vu, ready another test, how many have heard this before? Deja vu means? The illusion that one has already had a given experience. How many have had a deja vu experience in the last week? While all of a sudden a lot of people, at least half of you said there is some way in which this has occurred, there’s been a glitch in the matrix or whatever. Ready, I’m going to give you, do not write this down I’m going to give you 12 words, alright here we go 12 words let’s see how good you are at remembering these words, about four seconds each, don’t write them down, you don’t have to remember them in any order, just remember as many as you can.

Here we go. Okay write down as many as you can recall in any order, there were 12. Okay, real quickly, show of hands, how many remember the word pumpkin pie? How many remember the word sleep? Show of hands, I’d say 95 percent of you recall this word, that’s very interesting for this reason, here are the words, the 12 words, the word sleep is not up there, but 95 percent of you recall the word sleep, what that means is it possible that deja vu really is just your brain believing it experienced some event, I just saw the word sleep but it really wasn’t there, but the context was enough for you to recall it. And so deja vu might not be anything more than going I know I heard the word sleep, how many of you saw up there, you didn’t. But these things lead you to this, and some explanations of deja vu I’d like you to look at, but it might be similar to what just happened, your brain is fooled into thinking that it did have a long-term memory that did recalled it, when in reality it didn’t.

How many got at least seven right? OH good, how many got all of them right except for sleep? So you got 13 maybe or some of you just got it all. By the way lastly, and here’s what I want to do and end with this, there are different levels of encoding, there is visual acoustical and deep meaning, so right now as you’re writing these down, also write down the word that I had you remember 10 minutes ago, I put up a word, and I had you remember it on a slide, how many believe you can write down the world what it is, how many don’t remember the slide? Let’s start visually, how many could still see it up there, how many think you know the color, what color was it? How many say green, I heard green? How many say yellow? By the way green yellow, how many say red? White? Black? There was none of them, how many remember the word because it sounded like something? You made it sound like something, by the way if visual is your telling me the color and that is what we call shallow encoding, it’s very structural, you see the color or you remember it, how many remember it being in small letters? How many remember it being in all capital letters that’s visual encoding, if you said it sounded like something that’s acoustical, did anybody give a deep semantic word to it like it sounded like a thunderstorm, did anybody do that? That’s trying to get into deep meaning.

By the way the word, was that. Okay, just so you know if you really wanted to remember this, if you remember the deep meaning, if you went like this, the United States of America, then you will have what we call deep meaning, semantical and probably not forget it for a long time, the United States of America, so your goal when you study things is to get the deepest level to put some meaning to them, we’re out of time we’ll finish this on Monday, along with we’ll start talking about emotions on Monday.

>> Narrator: Biola University offers a variety of biblically centered degree programs ranging from business to ministry to the arts and sciences, visit biola.edu to find out how Biola could make a difference in your life. [upbeat music].

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